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The Reconstruction of Masculinities in Global Politics: Gendering Strategies in the Field of Private Security

Stachowitsch, S. (2014). “The Reconstruction of Masculinities in Global Politics: Gendering Strategies in the Field of Private Security.” Men and Masculinities.
The concept of masculinities has been central to the analysis of private security as a gendered phenomenon. This research has either focused on the identity constructions and practices of security contractors as men or on masculinity as a theoretical and ideological framework for making sense of security outsourcing. This article aims to overcome this dualism by developing a relational, strategic, and discursive understanding of masculinities and focusing on the gendering strategies that create them. These strategies are identified as masculinization of the market and feminization of the state, feminization and racialization of (some) security work, hypermasculinization as a critical or affirmative discourse, romanticizing the autonomous male bond, and militarization of private security. It is argued that private security as well as critical discourses on it integrate business, humanitarian, and militarized masculinities in a way that ultimately legitimizes masculinism and reconstructs masculinity as a privileged category in international politics.

Reconsidering the Culture and Violence Connection: Strategies of Action in the Rural South

Lee, M. R. and G. C. Ousey (2011). “Reconsidering the Culture and Violence Connection: Strategies of Action in the Rural South.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5): 899-929.
Crime scholars have long conceptualized culture as a set of values that violence is used to defend or reinforce (i.e., honor). This analysis moves beyond this framework by conceptualizing culture as a toolkit providing strategies of action that individuals use to negotiate social situations. Qualitative data obtained from participant responses to vignettes describing potential conflict situations are analyzed to explore the merit of the cultural toolkit framework as it pertains to the “southern culture of violence” thesis. Contrary to the traditional culture as values model, these data indicate that interpersonal violence is a situationally viable response for diverse groups of people, including males and females, Blacks and Whites, the young and the older. The interplay between culture and social structure is also apparent. Although culture provides individuals with a toolkit, structural factors provide situations in which individuals must decide which cultural tools are most appropriately used. Violence is most viable when individuals feel that the police cannot be relied on and when they perceive that there is an imminent or potentially recurring threat to their family or themselves. Rarely is violent action justified to achieve overarching values, although values are clearly part of the toolkit that informs social action. Participants also frequently report that some segments of their community would consider violence to be an appropriate response even when they personally disagree with that assessment. This highlights the role of agency, where individual lines of action may be constructed independently from perceived community expectations, another major point of departure from the values model.

Accomplishing Masculinity through Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Homicide

Kelley, K. and J. Gruenewald (2014). “Accomplishing Masculinity through Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Homicide: A Comparative Case Study Approach.” Men and Masculinities.
In the current study, we seek to understand the dynamic processes of fatal attacks against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals across different situational circumstances. A review of prior research and story line analyses of 121 anti-LGBT homicides led to the creation of a homicide typology based on offender mode of victim selection. Guided by symbolic interactionism and theories of masculinity and violence, five representative case studies are conducted based on various open-source materials. The purpose of the case studies is to examine the applicability of theories of masculinity and violence for explaining anti-LGBT homicides across different modes of victim selection. We conclude that interactionist and masculinity theories of violence can in part illuminate how and why offenders use violence to demonstrate masculinity in some anti-LGBT homicide scenarios.

Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence

Fulu, E., et al. (2013). “Prevalence of and factors associated with male perpetration of intimate partner violence: findings from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific.” The Lancet Global Health.
Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-researched. In this Article, we present data for the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of IPV from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of perpetration of partner violence, identify factors associated with perpetration of different forms of violence, and inform prevention strategies. We undertook standardised population-based household surveys with a multistage representative sample of men aged 18?49 years in nine sites in Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Papua New Guinea between January, 2011, and December, 2012. We built multinomial regression models of factors associated with lifetime violence perpetration: physical IPV, sexual IPV, both physical and sexual IPV, multiple emotional or economic IPV versus none, and calculated population-attributable fractions. In the analysis, we considered factors related to social characteristics, gender attitudes and relationship practices, victimisation history, psychological factors, substance misuse, and participation in violence outside the home. 10178 men completed interviews in our study (between 815 and 1812 per site). The response rate was higher than 82% in all sites except for urban Bangladesh (73%) and Sri Lanka (58%). The prevalence of physical or sexual IPV perpetration, or both, varied by site, between 25% (190/746; rural Indonesia) and 80% (572/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). When multiple emotional or economic abuse was included, the prevalence of IPV perpetration ranged from 39% (409/1040; Sri Lanka) to 87% (623/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). Factors associated with IPV perpetration varied by country and type of violence. On the basis of population-attributable fractions, we show factors related to gender and relationship practices to be most important, followed by experiences of childhood trauma, alcohol misuse and depression, low education, poverty, and involvement in gangs and fights with weapons. Perpetration of IPV by men is highly prevalent in the general population in the sites studied. Prevention of IPV is crucial, and interventions should address gender socialisation and power relations, abuse in childhood, mental health issues, and poverty. Interventions should be tailored to respond to the specific patterns of violence in various contexts. Physical and sexual partner violence might need to be addressed in different ways. Partners for Prevention – a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden.

Factors influencing attitudes to violence against women

Flood, M. and B. Pease (2009). “Factors influencing attitudes to violence against women.” TRAUMA, VIOLENCE, & ABUSE 10(2): 125-142.
Attitudes toward men’s violence against women shape both the perpetration of violence against women and responses to this violence by the victim and others around her. For these reasons, attitudes are the target of violence-prevention campaigns. To improve understanding of the determinants of violence against women and to aid the development of violence-prevention efforts, this article reviews the factors that shape attitudes toward violence against women. It offers a framework with which to comprehend the complex array of influences on attitudes toward violent behavior perpetrated by men against women. Two clusters of factors, associated with gender and culture, have an influence at multiple levels of the social order on attitudes regarding violence. Further factors operate at individual, organizational, communal, or societal levels in particular, although their influence may overlap across multiple levels. This article concludes with recommendations
regarding efforts to improve attitudes toward violence against women.

Societal Isolations, Violent Norms, and Gender Relations

Erchak, G. M. and R. Rosenfeld (1994). “Societal Isolations, Violent Norms, and Gender Relations: A Re-examination and Extension of Levinson’s Model of Wife Beating.” Cross-Cultural Research 28(2): 111-133.
This article reanalyzes cross-cultural data on wife beating using Murdock and White’s Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Geographic isolation, violent norms, and intergender competition over material and intimate resources and rewards emerge as significant sources of cross-cultural variation in spouse abuse. The conclusion, which provides a provocative foundation for future research, is that wife beating is more common in cultures that embrace the use of violence and that promote competition between husbands and wives.

Levels and growth of specific and general norms for nonviolence among middle school students

Dymnicki, A. B., et al. (2011). “Levels and growth of specific and general norms for nonviolence among middle school students.” Journal of Adolescence 34(5): 965-976.
This study examined the levels and growth of specific and general normative beliefs about nonviolence (called norms for nonviolence). The sample consisted of 1254 middle school students from four metropolitan areas who participated in the control condition of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project. We predicted that the association and endorsement of specific and general norms for nonviolence would strengthen over time, levels and growth of norms for nonviolence would be moderated by gender and ethnicity, and norms for nonviolence would be related to youths’ behaviors. Linear mixed models found that levels and direction of growth in specific and general norms varied as a function of gender, age, and ethnicity, providing partial support for our hypotheses. Specific and general norms for nonviolence were also consistently positively related to students’ social skills and negatively related to students’ aggressive behavior. Implications for understanding adolescent development are discussed. (C) 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A holistic approach to violence: Women parliamentarians’ understanding of violence against women and violence in the Kurdish issue in Turkey

elik, Ayşe Betl (2014). “A holistic approach to violence: Women parliamentarians’ understanding of violence against women and violence in the Kurdish issue in Turkey.” European Journal of Women’s Studies.
While women in Turkey and around the world are commonly engaged in civic activism for peace and violence reduction, they are seriously underrepresented in formal politics; thus, not much has been written about their potential to affect decisions made to reduce violence in their societies. This study aims to understand how women politicians view violence in general and their solutions for two specific types of violence in Turkey: (1) the increasing levels of violence against women, and (2) violence created through the Kurdish issue in Turkey. Turkish politicians have become increasingly concerned about both of these issues in recent years and have designed many policies and strategies to address them. This study argues that studying the women parliamentarians’ linkage (or its absence) between the two types of violence will help understand what accounts for the differences (if any) among women MPs in their understanding of different types of violence and their solutions to them.

Honor Killings and the Construction of Gender in Arab Societies.

Abu Odeh, L. (2010). “Honor Killings and the Construction of Gender in Arab Societies.” American Journal of Comparative Law 58(4): 911-952.
This Article discusses the regulation and adjudication of honor killings in the Arab world and traces the distributive and disciplinary impact of such regulation/adjudication on Arab men and Arab women’s sexuality. In the afterword, the Article outlines the transformative effect of Islamicization of culture in the Arab world in the past twenty years on the practice of honor and killings committed in its name.

The four boxes of gendered sexuality: A framework and lesson plan for teaching about the history and effects of gendered sexuality.

Crane, B. and J. Crane-Seeber (2013). “The four boxes of gendered sexuality: A framework and lesson plan for teaching about the history and effects of gendered sexuality.” American Journal of Sexuality Education 8(4).
Why might intelligent, assertive females overlook sweet, caring guys, choosing instead to date males whose traditional masculinity makes them popular with other powerful males, but who treat females and “weaker” males poorly? This lesson provides a structure for, reflection on and critique of contemporary gender stereotypes. Students explore the history and effects of gendered sexuality, which begin at birth and continue until death. Gendered sexuality refers to the ways in which we experience our sexuality based on the interaction of our biological sex and gender socialization. The story told in this lesson illuminates how expectations for males and females are based on an historical and cultural legacy that all too often goes unexamined. We describe this legacy as an historically constructed pair of binaries, called the Four Boxes of Gendered Sexuality: Good Girl vs. Bad Girl and Tough Guy vs. Sweet Guy. Educators may use this lesson to assist a range of populations in understanding where these expectations come from, what enforces them, and their effects on sexual attitudes and behavior.