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Masculinity and New War: The gendered dynamics of contemporary armed conflict.

Duriesmith, David. 2017. Masculinity and New War: The gendered dynamics of contemporary armed conflict. London and New York: Routledge.

This book advances the claims of feminist international relations scholars that the social construction of masculinities is key to resolving the scourges of militarism, sexual violence and international insecurity. More than two decades of feminist research has chartered the dynamic relationship between warfare and masculinity, but there has yet to be a detailed account of the role of masculinity in structuring the range of volatile civil conflicts which emerged in the Global South after the end of the Cold War.

By bridging feminist scholarship on international relations with the scholarship of masculinities, Duriesmith advances both bodies of scholarship through detailed case study analysis. By challenging the concept of ‘new war’, he suggests that a new model for understanding the gendered dynamics of civil conflict is needed, and proposes that the power dynamics groups of men based on age difference, ethnicity, location and class form an important and often overlooked causal component to these civil conflicts.

Exploring the role of masculinities through two case studies, the civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) and the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), this book will be of great interest to postgraduate students, practitioners and academics working in the fields of gender and security studies.


Masculinity and Gender-Based Violence in Rwanda

Slegh, H. and A. Kimonyo (2010). Masculinity and Gender-Based Violence in Rwanda: Experiences and perceptions of men and women. Kigali, Rwanda MenEngage Network. http://www.promundo.org.br/en/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/IMAGES-Rwanda.pdf
RWAMREC in collaboration with the Rwanda Men Engage Network is pleased to present this report which shows the results of the first national household survey ever done in Rwanda on perceptions about masculinity and GBV. The study, conducted from January 2010 to June 2010, examined the roots of GBV in relation to perceptions about masculinity within Rwandan society. This quantitative and qualitative research explored the experiences and opinions of men and women with relativity to how men are supposed to act and behave according to the socio-cultural norms and val ues in Rwanda.

The quantitative instrument was adapted from IMAGES, a multi-country survey with women and men on attitudes toward gender equality, as well as behaviors and attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health, maternal and child health, GBV, fatherhood; men’s attitudes toward women and toward gender equality; and men’s attitudes toward various policies related to gender equality.
IMAGES is coordinated by the ICRW and Promundo, and was developed in partnership with the Center for Gender Studies-University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; El Colgio de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; the MRC, Pretoria, South Africa; CulturaSalud, Santiago, Chile; Partners for Prevention: A United Nations Joint Program for Ending VAW in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand; the Center for Education, Counseling and Research, Zagreb, Croatia; and RWAMREC, Kigali, Rwanda. As of 2010, IMAGES had been applied in Brazil, Mexico, India, Croatia, Chile, South Africa (as part of a separate study on men, health and violence coordinated by the MRC), in addition to Rwanda.

The overall goal of IMAGES is to add to our understanding of men’s behaviors and attitudes – and changes in those attitudes and behaviors – to inform, drive and monitor policy development to promote gender equality by engaging men and women in such policies. The IMAGES questionnaire builds on existing instruments, heavily drawing on the “Questionnaire on Gender Equality and Quality of Life” developed by the Norwegian Ministry of Gender Equality and Children Affairs, along with items for the WHO multi-country study on VAW; the GEM scale developed by Population Council and Promundo; and by surveys on sexual violence and physical violence against women carried out by the MRC.

The analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data focuses on identification of particular aspects in society that contribute to violent behavior towards women and girls and negative perceptions about masculinity. This study explores the prevailing opinions about manhood in Rwanda and examines how these perceptions, constructed and transmitted in the current society, are related to GBV. The study, presented in this report, shows how different factors in Rwandan society play a key role in “making men” and explains how these factors contribute to the fact that many men use violence towards their female partners. The findings provide important implications for the development of new strategies to tackle VAW with the involvement of men and boys.

The report includes four parts: the first part describes the problem of GBV in Rwanda and links the study to other international studies about masculinity and GBV. The second part explains the methodology and research process. The third part presents the main results. The last part concludes with recommendations for the development of programs that contribute to bridging the identified gaps on perceptions about gender and masculinity in the daily life of women and men in Rwanda facing GBV.

Masculinities in Theory: An Introduction.

Reeser, T. W. (2010). Masculinities in Theory: An Introduction. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.
Masculinities in Theory is a clear, concise, and comprehensive introduction to the field of masculinities studies from a humanities perspective. This interdisciplinary text includes discussions of feminist, queer, transgender, post-colonial, and ethnic studies in relation to masculinity to explore the question “What is masculinity and how does it work?”.
Examining the ways in which the work of theorists like Butler and Foucault can be used to interpret and analyze masculinity, Todd Reeser introduces issues from cross-dressing to nation, covering the key theoretical approaches to the study of masculinity, and introducing new models.

Understanding Sexual Violence.

Scully, D. (1990). Understanding Sexual Violence. London, Harper Collins.
Understanding Sexual Violence examines the structural supports for rape in sexually violent cultures and dispels a number of myths about sexual violence–for example, that childhood abuse, alcohol, and drugs are direct causes of rape.

Boys Will be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence.

Miedzian, M. (1991). Boys Will be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence. New York, Doubleday.
An important, ground-breaking exploration of how and why American males are increasingly turning to violence and what we, as individuals and as a society, can do about it. Lucid, well researched, and highly practical, this very accessible book will appeal to a broad spectrum of readers, including parents and teachers. Miedzian convincingly demonstrates, drawing heavily on research studies in psychology, sociology, and anthropology, how violence can be greatly reduced in our society.

A Man’s World? Changing Men’s Practices in a Globalized World

Pease, B. and K. Pringle, Eds. (2001). A Man’s World? Changing Men’s Practices in a Globalized World. London and New York, Palgrave.
Much work has been produced in recent years regarding critical studies of men’s ppractices utilizing various feminist and pro-feminist perspectives. This book seeks to widen what has hitherto been a dialogue primarily within the Western democracies. The Editors have sought to achieve this by bringing together a number of established as well as new scholars in order to provide a broader critical analysis of men’s practices across a wide range of socio-cultural settings. Particular attention is given to the fact that most studies of globalization and transnational social policy have tended not to encompass issues of men’s practices at all.

Issues covered within this volume include: men as carers of children; men as professional welfare workers; men’s health; men’s violence; and men’s involvement in gender equality projects. Several contributions explore the complex transnational intersections and interaction which are occurring in the way men’s practices are developing across the globe. In addition to this comparative analysis, a carefully selected and wide range of national studies are included from Europe (the UK, Ireland, Sweden and Finland); the Americas (the USA, Brazil and Nicaragua); Asia (India and Hong Kong); as well as Australia and South Africa.

Gender, Youth and Culture, Young Masculinities and Femininities.

Nayak, A. and M. J. Kehily (2008). Gender, Youth and Culture, Young Masculinities and Femininities. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
How do boys become men and girls become women in the modern world? What does it mean to be a “proper” girl or boy? Bringing together work on both feminine and masculine identities in innovative ways, “Gender, Youth and Culture” explores how gender isproduced, consumed, regulated and performed by young people today.
Drawing on refreshingly acessible examples from contemporary culture, the authors demonstrate how features of youth culture such as a binge drinking, rave culthre, film and popular television can be used to explain complex theoretical ideas. With discussion of new research, burgeoning international literature and global case studies, this original text examines race, gender, sexuality and class in a range of environments.

Men and Masculinities.

Haywood, C. and M. Mac an Ghaill (2003). Men and Masculinities. Buckingham, Philadelphia, Open University Press.
Are all men the same? What do men want? What makes a “real man”? During the past decade, questions such as these have been raised across social and cultural arenas in local and global contexts. In response, this lively and engageing book adopts an international perspective and meets the current need for a comprehensive introduction to contemporary debates about men and masculinities.
Through a broad critical review of masculinities studies, the book provides an original synthesis of main theories, key concepts and empirical research. Designed to provide an up-to-date guide to the field, it comines the traditional sociological enquiry into the family, work and education with contemporary concerns about multiple identities, globalization and late modernity.

Men, Masculinities and Crime: Just Boys Doing Business?

Newburn, T. and E. A. Stanko, Eds. (1995). Men, Masculinities and Crime: Just Boys Doing Business? London, New York, Routledge.
One of the most significant facts about crime is that it is almost always committed by men. Despite this, academic consideration of crime tends to overlook this most obvious feature. if gender is discussed at all, the focus is usually on women. “Just Boys Doing Business?” is the first collection to challenge mainstream criminology by taking the social construction of “masculinity” as its focus.
The book brings together a broad range of criminologists with established international reputations. it comes at a time when there is increasing concern about levels of crime – especially among young men. The contributors come from three continents and illustrate the international significance of a focus on masculinity when looking at crime.

Men, Gender Division and Welfare.

Popay, J., J. Hearn, et al., Eds. (1998). Men, Gender Division and Welfare. London, New York, Routledge.
Men, Gender Divisions and Welfare focuses on the relationship between men and welfare. It highlights the importance of gendered power relations and explores the complexities and contradictions of these relationships. Also addressed is how these issues are becoming increasingly part of social policy debates. Key features that emerge are the persistence of men’s power and control in welfare and at the same time, men’s avoidance of welfare structures.
The first part of the book comprises theoretical and historical reviews of the relationship between men and welfare. The main body of the book draws on new empirical studies, encompassing both men and women’s perspectives. Subjects discussed include how men affect the welfare of women and children, accounts of men’s violence towards women they know, women and men as carers for spouses with disabilities, accounts of parenthood, and experiences of unemployed men and their employed wives. The final section focuses on relations between service provides, men and welfare.